Morogoro lies in the agricultural heartland of Tanzania, and is a centre of farming in the southern highlands. Tobacco is grown in the region and consolidated here before going to the market. In addition to its agricultural importance, Morogoro is also the centre for missionary work that goes on in the country, and various missions and their schools and hospitals are a central feature of the town.
The town of Morogoro lies at the base of the Uluguru Mountains, part of the Eastern Arc chain. Its close location to the peaks makes Morogoro an important stop for hiking trips to the Ulugurus.